The Emotional and Social Development of children, a guide to comfort, play and teach



The Emotional and Social development of children, a guide to comfort, play and teach.
Social and emotional learning is a lifelong process that begins at birth.  Caregivers play a pivotal role in this arena and should therefore be equipped with a loving and caring heart as well as knowledge of  typical and emerging emotional and social skills of children as they grow.


 Here is a guide for parents and caregivers of children 0-5 years.
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Emotional Development, your Baby at l to 3 months:


Typical Emotional Skills:

*  Enjoys/needs a great deal of physical contact and tactile stimulation
*  Demonstrates different moods (e.g., distress and excitement)
*  Shows  happiness with squeals; frustration with whimpers; and hunger with smacking lips


Emerging Emotional Skills: 

*  Recognizes and calms down to a familiar voice
*  Makes appropriate facial expressions in response to emotions (e.g., fear, joy, anger).
*  Starts to laugh.



If a Caregiver will do this:                                     Your Baby will:


Comfort:                                                             

*Respond quickly to your baby’s cry                * Feel his needs                                                                                are being met
* Provide comforting soft materials                  * Begin to quiet
                                                                             down on his own
Play:

*Provide soft, lullaby music                              * Enjoy new                                                                           comforting sounds
*Copy the faces your baby makes                      * Respond with his
                                                                                own expressions 
Teach:
       
* Talk to your baby                                            * Turn toward your
                                                                               familiar voice
* Create routines                                                * Learn to                                                                                         anticipate what
                                                                             comes next.                                   
Social Development, your Baby at l to 3 months:


Typical Social Skills:
*  Fixes eyes on your face in response to your smile
*  Studies faces alertly and is more oriented to his surroundings
*  Enjoys socializing and playing with other people


Emerging Social Skills:
*  Listens to voices and coos
*  Becomes more expressive with her face, body/muscle tone and voice
Knows difference between family members and strangers.



If a Caregiver will do this:                          Your Baby will:

Comfort:
    * Make eye contact with your             *Become familiar with          baby                                              your face
            
   * Spend time with your baby daily      *Enjoy relating to 
                                                                   loving adults.

Play:

* Speak using different pitches               *Show interest in the                                                                sound of the caregiver’s                                                                      voice
* Read and sing to your baby                 * Discover language and
                                                                   music through enjoyable
                                                                   interactions.
Teach:

*  Pause, observe and respond                  * Become engaged in
appropriately to your baby’s reactions      the interactions.
* Give your baby time to react and           * Learn about the basics
  then respond to him                                of taking turns in a
                                                                  conversation.         
                                                            

Emotional Development, your Baby at 4 to 6 months


Typical Emotional Skills:
*  Stops cooing and smiling or fusses if a new person moves toward him
*  Shows fear, anger and disgust
*  Responds sometimes to the emotional tones of parents” voices


Emerging Emotional Skills
*  May differentiate between mother’s image and his own in the mirror
*  Is content to pay alone for a while with a few toys in the crib or playpen
*  Shows attachment to special toy or object and uses it for comfort.



If a Caregiver will do this:                             Your Baby will:

Comfort:

* Learn to soothe your baby’s distress         * Feel his emotions are
                                                                        understood
* Describe your baby’s emotion to him       * Begin to learn about 
                                                                         feelings


Play:

* Add tickles or finger plays to                     *Feel reassured about
    daily routines (e.g., feeding)                        what to expect at
                                                                          these times
 * Sing action songs such as                          * Begin to become
     "If you're happy and you know it"               with different 
                                                                           emotions.
\

Teach:

* Hold your baby around new people            *Feel a sense of 
                                                                          security even in
                                                                          frightening situation

*Read books showing pictures of people       * Learn about 
with different expressions                                 different expressions







Social Development, your Baby at 4 to 6 months


Typical Social Skills:

*  Makes social gestures such as waving or kicking when he sees a familiar person
*  Distinguishes familiar and unfamiliar adults
* Smiles at and enjoys patting mirror image, differentiates self from mirror image



Emerging Social Skills:

* Demonstrates delightful openness and friendliness
* Observes adults’ facial expressions intently
*  Starts to cooperate in games with others, (e.g., ball games, building blocks)



If a Caregiver will do this:                        Your Baby will:



Comfort   

   *Sing and talk to your baby                  * Take comfort in the songs 
      as much as possible                                and sounds he knows
                                

    *Call out to your baby in                      * Begin to call out to you
      a fun voice from another room               to get your attention
                                                                      when he hears your voice

 Play:  

      *Sit or hold your baby in front             *Love to look at your face
        of a  mirror and make faces                   and his own.

                               



Teach:

 *Talk about what you hear                         * Learn to listen and
    (e.g., "The phone is ringing.")                    begin to recognize
                                                                        household sounds
                  

  * Create a book with pictures of                 *Learn about the 
      familiar people for your baby                    people in his world







Emotional Development, your Baby at 7 to 9 months



Typical Emotional Skills:



   Feels strongly about what he does or does not to do



*     Laughs because he now knows he can laugh whenever he wants



     Displays fear of separation, (e.g., is clearly attached to familiar caregivers)



Emerging Emotional Skills:



*      Shows clear like or dislike for certain people, objects or places



 *     May be more sensitive to other children and will cry if they cry



*     Begins to think about people’s moods and motives





If a Caregiver will do this:                              Your Baby will:



Comfort: 


  Watch to see what behavior                   *Learn to cope with
      helps your baby soothe emotions             himself and encourage
      in his own way (e.g., using a                    it.
      special blanket or a toy)

   * Make sure to always respond                  *Understand that he can 
      to your baby’s “calls” for                             depend on you.
      attention.




Play:


 *  Play some physical games that energize          *Learn how to                your baby, without making him anxious            be excited and to

                                                                         calm down again
                                                   
*  Enjoy one-to-one games like showing              *Show his feelings      baby his eyes, nose and mouth in                        by making faces
     a mirror.                                                           and body movements


                                                                       



Teach:


*Tell your baby about the routine                     *Feel safe, secure
   (e.g., “It’s time to change                                 and respected as
    your diaper")                                                    an individual.             
           

 *  Create routines for all regular                   * Begin to learn what
     activities, like                                                is happening next

     diapering, bedtime, feeding or playtime.      and feel control over 
                                                                            his emotional 
                                                                            reactions.
                                                                                               



Social Development, your Baby at 7-9 months:




Typical Social Skills:



·   *   Plays social games such as peek-a-boo, pat-a-cake, and ball games
*   Resists pressure to do something he doesn’t want to do (e.g., pushes spoon away when feeding)
*   Shouts for attention and breaks into conversation with his voice.



Emerging Social Skills:



·        Demonstrates sense of control (e.g., extends toy to show you, but won’t give it to you)



·        Tests caregiver or parental reactions during feeding and bedtime



·        Able to concentrate on other people’s actions (e.g., likes to watch people scribbling on paper)



If a Caregiver will do this:                                                      Your Baby will:



Comfort:


·     * Sing a song about looking
          for your baby                                    *Feel sure you will always
  (e.g.“Baby Marco where are you?”)       find him.                                                                                       
 *  Gently explain turn-taking if your      *Knows you are there to
      baby gets upset playing with others       help with his emotions
                                                              when others are around




Play:



·        Make time for your baby to be with                           *Try to communicate to    



other  babies                                                                them using sounds or



                                                                                      gestures.



·        Follow your baby’s lead instead of always                 *Enjoy the sense that



deciding what game to play                                          she has control over



                                                                                       his actions and wishes



Teach:



·         Slowly encourage your baby to go to                          *Learn to warm up to a



someone new, never forcing                                                stranger and approach



                                                                                                                       others on his own terms



·        Play and invite others to play, peek-a-boo                   *Realize that you and



with your baby                                                                others are still there



                                                                                        even when you can`t



                                                                                         be seen.























Emotional Development, your Baby at l0 to 12 Months:







Typical Emotional Skills:



·        Is able to seek comfort when upset (e.g., reaches up to be held)



·        Expresses many emotions and recognizes them in others (e.g., sad, happy, mad, scared)



·        Displays affection in hugs, kisses, pats and smiles







Emerging Emotional Skills:



·        Displays independent behaviour (e.g., refuses food, resists napping, may have tantrums)



·        Communicates specific preferences for certain people and toys (e.g. by crying, laughing)



·        Able to communicate discomfort when fearful or stressed







If a caregiver will do this:                                     Your baby will:



Comfort:



·        Do finger and toe plays and bounces       * Enjoy receiving your special



     with your baby                                              attention and affection                                  



·        Ask your baby for hugs and kisses           * Feel very loved







Play:



·        Provide opportunities to play with           *Try out ways to communicate



other babies                                                 and engage with other babies



·        Turn everyday routines into playful          *Look forward to daily routines



moments by adding tickles, giggles            and enjoy fun times with you.



and fun interactions.



Teach:



·        Look at books with pictures of                   *Begin to label emotions and



people’s different emotions and                    and enjoy looking at books



talk about these



·        Say all the things you love about                *Become familiar with words



your baby                                                      for expressing affection.























Social Development, your Baby at l0 to 12 months:







Typical Social Skills:



·        Knows when parent approves or disapproves of behavior



·        Tries to help when being dressed (e.g., by putting arms out for sleeves



or feet for shoes.



·        Imitates adult movements as well as the actions and play of other children



Emerging Social Skills:



·        Shows familiarity with rituals and routines of the day; knows what comes next



·        Experiments with ways to get attention, enjoys being the center of attention



·        Respons to request (e.g., generally gives up toys on request).



If a Caregiver will do this:                                 Your Baby will:







Comfort:



·        Describe your baby’s emotion                 *Know you are responding to his



(e.g., Lily is crying. She feels sad.)            feelings



     *   Create a routine for daily events               *Feel safe and secure because he



           and talk about it before it                            knows what is happening next



           starts and as it is happening.



Play:







·        Look at family photos and talk about        * Try to say some of the names



what the people in the pictures



are doing.



·        Provide a safe place where your baby        * Communicate his interest in



can crawl and explore                                   objects by gazing, reaching



                                                                        or pointing



Teach:



·        Talk about upcoming events                       * Learn about what is happening



                                                                        and how events affect him



·        Ask your baby to give a toy to you              * Begin to respond to requests



                                                                         and practice sharing and



                                                                          taking turns.



Emotional Development, your Baby at l3 to l8 months







Typical Emotional Skills:



·        Is more confident, exploring new things and taking risks when a trusted adult is present.



·        Identifies self in mirror or photograph, becomes more of an individual.



·        Hugs and kisses parents and other very familiar people and pets.







Emerging Emotional Skills:



·        Shows jealousy when attention is given to other family members



·        Shows frustration easily



·        Display a sense of ownership over toys and people.







If a Caregiver will do this:                                   Your Baby will:







Comfort:



·        Encourage your child to safely                     * Explore his environment



explore his surroundings                                 in a self-directed way.







·        Give your child opportunities to                    * Develop a sense of



Feel successful (e.g., play a game                     competence and feel that



That he has initiated)                                         he can influence others







Play:



·        Use stories, songs or toys                               * Express emotion in response



(e.g., teddy bears) to explore  feelings                   to what he sees or hears







·        Provide opportunities for your child               * Learn to be self-reliant for



to play on his own                                             small periods of time







Teach:



·        Teach your child simple words to                    * Learn to connect words to



express his feelings (e.g., “I’m sad”)                   how he feels







·        Inform him when a routine will be                   * Become better prepared to



different and what will be happening                  deal with any changes and



                                                                              experience less anxiety







Social Development, your Baby at l3 to 18 months







Typical Social Skills:



·        Begins to show sense of humour



·        Plays best on his own, doesn’t want to share toys with others,



shouting, “Mine, mine!”



·        Enjoys imitating adult tasks such as dusting, sweeping floors, setting the table







Emerging Social Skills:



·        May be able to cooperate at times but may not respond quickly or will do the opposite of the request



·        Play alongside another child



·        Tries to dress/undress himself (e.g., pull up pants, undo Velcro shoe fasteners)







If a Caregiver will do this:                                     Your Baby will:







Comfort:



·        Have a good-bye routines when                     * Be comforted by routines



you and family members leave                           which means that people



                                                                              always return



·        Invite your child to join in some                     * Enjoy imitating adult tasks;



daily chores                                                       feel a sense of independence







Play:



·        Create time for your child to play                    * Begin to learn the give and



with others his age                                               take that comes with being



                                                                             in a social group.



·        Provide pretend play props                              * Recreate familiar actions



                                                                            he has experienced himself



Teach:



·        Share a toy with your child, taking                   * Begin to learn what’s



turns with it                                                          expected when he plays



                                                                                with others



·        Use “Yes” and “No” to clearly set                      * Begin to understand what



limits and explain why, always                            actions are acceptable or



respond warmly                                                    not acceptable



Emotional Development, your Toddler at l9 to 24 months







Typical Emotional Skills:



·        Is developing a range of emotions (e.g., may have tantrums, show aggression by biting



·        Is pulled between needing to show independence and still feeling dependent



·        Still cautious around unfamiliar adults (e.g., will play with a new adult in the presence of a familiar person)







Emerging Emotional Skills:



·        Uses words such as “no” a lot



·        Shares a piece of food



·        Familiar with routines and the order of the day, is unhappy about any changes in routine







If a Caregiver will do this:                                        Your Toddler will:







Comfort:



·        Recognize and name your child’s                      * Learn the words to use



Emotions (e.g., “Your crying tells me                   when talking about



you are sad”                                                          feelings







·        Suggest ways to deal with his feelings               * Feel comforted and



                                                                               supported to learn ways



                                                                               to deal with his emotions



Play:



·        Sing songs that use emotion words                    * Begin to associate certain



(e.g., “If you’re happy and you know                    emotions with behaviors



 It, clap your hands”)







·        Read stories that explore different                     * Begin to see what can make



emotions  and discuss the                                  others sad, happy, angry, etc.



character’s  perspective



























Teach:



·        Notice when your child is frustrated                 * Know you will help him 



and help him deal with his emotions                   cope with challenging



                                                                                        feelings



·        Offer your child different choices                      * Begin to develop some



to help him cope with his feelings.                      strategies to deal with his



                                                                               emotions.



















Teach:



·        Notice when your child is frustrated               * Know you will help him cope



and help him deal with his emotions.                 with challenging feelings.







·        Offer your child different choices                    * Begin to develop some



to help him cope with his feelings.                      strategies to deal with his



                                                                              emotions.







Social Development, your Toddler at l9 to 24 months







Typical Social Skills:



·        Enjoys playing alone for a few minutes (e.g., building blocks, drawing, looking at books)



·        Shows ownership or possession of objects and cannot share easily



·        Says “no” and likes to do things without help







Emerging Social Skills:



·        Distinguishes himself as a separate person, contrasts himself with others



·        Begins to be toilet trained



·        Puts on simple clothing without help.



































If a Caregiver will do this:                                        Your Toddler will:







Comfort:



·        During every day routines, talk                     * Enjoy talking about people



about family and friends                                  he knows and loves



·        Follow your child’s lead rather                      * Learn that his ideas are valued



than direct the play yourself                             and that people will listen to



                                                                           him.







Play:



·        Look at family photos so your                      * Learn to recognize and name



Child can find himself and identify                 family members; think about



Familiar people                                                his relationship to them.



·        Set up a water play activity with                  * Develop and practice social



a friend, give them dolls, sponges                  skills like sharing and turn



and towels                                                       taking while enjoying a



                                                                         soothing sensory activity.                                                      







Teach:



·        Prepare your child ahead of time                * Anticipate what will happen and



For new social events                                     think about what he might like



                                                                        To do at the event



·        Let your child help with chores                   * Learn to feel responsible as he



(e.g., wiping spills, putting clothes                  as he participates in daily



in drawers)                                                       family or daycare routines











Emotional Development, your Toddler at 25 to 30 months







Typical  Emotional Skills:



·        Wants independence but still needs security of parents



·        Needs an ordered, predictable routine (e.g., when saying good-bye to parent)



·        Expresses feelings through language and pretend play (e.g., roaring like an angry lion)







Emerging Emotional Skills:



·        Separates more easily from parents



·        Responds to other children’s feelings and begins to show empathy



·        Becomes less upset by limits and discipline



If a Caregiver will do this:                                            Your Toddler will:







Comfort:



·         Encourage your toddler to show his                   * Feel comfortable expressing his feelings



Emotions and talk about them



(e.g., “It’s OK to cry.  Can you tell me



What’s making you sad?”)



·         Model coping with emotions (e.g., talk               *  Learn strategies for dealing with



through frustrating problems with                          emotions



your toddler.







Play:    



·         Provide the chance for pretend play                      * Express different emotions through



with dolls and teddy bears in order                          using toys



to explore emotions                                                                                                                                                                              



·         Read books that illustrate how children                 * Begin to understand another person’s



or animals experience a range of                             emotions and what might have



emotions                                                                   caused them







Teach:



·         Encourage your toddler to understand                    * Begin to be aware of the feelings



how others may feel in situations                              others may have



·         Help him understand how his behavior                   * Begin to understand how other



affects others                                                           children might feel in certain situations











Social Development, your Toddler at 25 to 30 months







Typical Social Skills:



·        Establishes self as separate from parents by saying “No! Me do it!”



·        Displays shyness around strangers and in outside situations



·        Likes to play near other children but not yet able to play cooperatively







Emerging Social Skills:



·        Approaches new person after you have talked to them



·        Begins to show more readiness for cooperative play



·        Knows own gender, and that of others



























If a Caregiver will do this:                                      Your Toddler will:







Comfort:



·        Provide safe opportunities                             * Know he is a separate person



To assert independence                                     but that you are there to help



                                                                           him if needed



·        Read stories about ways people                      * Begin to understand the



care for each other                                             caring behaviors and how to



                                                                            get along with others.







Play:



·        Go to the park and play in the sand                 * Feel a sense of belonging



with other children                                             in a group



·        Invite one friend over to play for                    * Begin to develop social skills



a short time                                                       and become more able to play



                                                                           with others







Teach:



·        When conflicts occur, explain how                  * Begin to learn positive ways



his behavior makes the other                              to interact with other



person feel                                                           children and how to    



                                                                             problem-solve   



·        Encourage taking turns                                     * Develop important social



                                                                             skills while doing an



                                                                              enjoyable activity











Emotional Development, your Toddler at 31 to 36 months







Typical Emotional Skills:



·        Objects to major changes in routines



·        Recognizes and responds to other children’s feelings



·        Becomes more comfortable with new people







Emerging Emotional Skills:



·        Explains feelings when asked about them



·        Is more able to understand the feelings of other children, and talk about them



·        Gets excited about activities he does







If a Caregiver will do this:                                       Your Toddler will:







Comfort:



·        Try to maintain regular routines;                      * Feel a sense of security



tell him when a change is coming                      and predictability



·        Acknowledge his feelings and                          * Learn to understand his own



talk about them                                                    feelings and respond



                                                                               appropriately to those



                                                                                of others







Play:



·        Find people pictures showing                            * Begin to think about what



different emotions; talk about the                        causes people to have



person’s feelings and why they might                  different feelings and



feel that way                                                         recognize words that match



                                                                               emotions



·        Encourage your child to do small                       * Become more comfortable



excursions with other  familiar                              being away from parents



caregivers







Teach:



·        Read books with your child about                      * Have a chance to ask about



different feelings                                                    emotions and learn about



                                                                                his own



·        Create a picture chart of his day                       * Have a comforting reminder



                                                                             of his routine and learn



                                                                            about the sequence of events







Social Development, your Toddler at 31 to 36 months







Typical Social Skills:



·        Uses social conventions like “please”, “thank you” and greetings



·        Is more able to play cooperatively and take turns



·        Plays make-believe games























Emerging Social Skills:



·        Imitates adult behaviors, for example, shopping in make-believe grocery store



·        Helps other children to do things



·        Develops pro-social skills like turn-taking, sharing, using words to resolve conflicts







If a Caregiver will do this:                                  Your Toddler will:







Comfort:



·        Introduce your toddler to familiar               * Learn to recognize people



neighbors and community workers                and feel safe with them



·        Acknowledge his positive behavior             * Know his behavior was



(e.g., “The way you shared was so                  appropriate and be motivated



polite”)                                                             to repeat it.







Play:



·        Provide many dramatic play props                 * Recreate his experiences in



like food containers, play money,                      pretend play situations



 basket, etc.                                                         (e.g., shopping)







·        Invite two of your child’s friends                    * Be able to practice his



Over for a cooking or craft activity                    social skills as he shares



                                                                            materials or take turns in



                                                                            an activity



Teach:



·        Provide puppets and dolls for                          * Expand his language skills



dramatic play                                                      and use his imagination



·        Play simple turn-taking games                         * Practice waiting his turn



llke “I spy with my little eye”                            while developing his



                                                                            observation skills.







































Emotional Development, Your Preschooler at 3-4 Years







Typical Emotional Skills:



·        Experiences a broad range of feelings (e.g., jealousy, excitement, fear, happiness, anger).



·        Is more able to express anger verbally rather than physically



·        Is becoming less egocentric and more able to understand the point of view of others.







Emerging Emotional Skills:



·        Expands pretend play into rich, connected themes



·        Is more even tempered and cooperative with parents



·        May show attachment to one playmate







If a Caregiver will do this:                               Your preschooler will:







Comfort:



·        Model coping with emotions                 * Learn acceptable ways to cope



·        Help your preschooler deal with            * Feel supported when experiencing



tantrums by talking to her about              negative emotions



what makes him feel better when



angry or sad.







Play:



·        Arrange special play dates with              * Feel supported in his social needs



His friends



·        Provide opportunities for him                  * Develop a sense of mastery and



to make choices about play                        positive self-esteem in areas he



activities.                                                    likes







Teach:



·        Engage in activities that please                 * Feel respected when you engage



Your preschooler (e.g., reading                    in his favorite activity



Books, doing puzzles)



·        Encourage him to choose his                     * Develop confidence in his ability



Clothes and get dressed independently      * to be responsible.















Social Development, Your Preschooler at 3-4 Years







Typical Social Skills:



·        Enjoys playing with other children and socializes well



·        Imitates mom or dad in play



·        Likes to talk and carry on conversations







Emerging Social Skills:



·        Participates in interactive games like “London Bridge” and “Farmer in the Dell”



·        Complies with requests from parents more often



·        Enjoy dramatic play with others







If a Caregiver will do this:                                    Your preschooler will:







Comfort:



·        Give your preschooler a special                * Feel that he has a special and



Responsibility, like watering                        important role in the family or



The garden                                                    the preschool



·        Be available to your preschooler               * Know that you are interested in



and ready to talk to him when needed.        his activities and feel secure.







Play:



·        Provide opportunities for your child          * Develop his ability to share and



To play with other preschoolers                    take turns.



·        Spend time playing simple games              * Enjoy playing with you and



that require turn-taking                                  begin to understand games with



                                                                       rules.



Teach:



·        Ask your preschooler about his                  * Want to talk to you more often



day (e.g., “What was one special                  about his experiences.



Thing you did?”



·        Explain to your preschooler reasons           * Have a better understanding of



behind your requests.                                       routines, rules and limits.























Emotional Development, Your Preschooler at 4 to 5 years







Typical Emotional Skills:



·        Uses pretend play to gain control of frustrating and frightening experiences.



·        Complies with requests from parents more often.



·        Keeps going on a difficult task for longer periods.







Emerging Emotional Skills:



·        Shows ability to reflect on himself and his actions (e.g., “What I said wasn’t nice”)



·        Experiences and understands positive and negative feelings about another person.



·        Starts to show more interest in doing things for himself (e.g., cleaning room, eating).







If a Caregiver will do this:                                  Your Preschooler will:







Comfort:



·        Monitor and name things that                   * Experience lower stress levels



may cause your child’s experiences              and feel your love and support



to be negative.



·        Allow your child to develop his                * Learn to feel capable in different



strengths and talents                                     areas (e.g., sports, music, arts)







Play:



·        Provide drawing materials and                  * Use his creativity to express



Encourage your child to talk about               emotions and talk about personal



his pictures.                                                   events.   



·        Encourage your child to act out                 * Identify and talk about feelings



situations and emotions by himself              in an imaginative way.



or using puppets.



Teach:



·        Guide your child on how to handle           * Learn how to express anger and



challenging feelings                                     frustration safely.



·        Support your child when he wants            * Learn that wanting to try out new



to try new things or take risks in                 things is ok and can bring



in social situations.                                        success.











Social Development, Your Preschooler at 4 to 5 years







Typical Social Skills:



·        Plays games with simple rules



·        Shows interest in gender differences, and may undress with other children



·        Begins to grasp the concept of sharing







Emerging Social Skills:



·        Plays cooperatively in a group of 2-3 children



·        Shoes an understanding of right and wrong



·        Listens while others are speaking







If a Caregiver will do this:                          Your preschooler will:







Comfort:



·        Provide opportunities for                     * Start to represent his stories



your child to draw or tell                         and share his thoughts



his own stories.



·        Tell him how proud you are                 * Feel proud of what he’s done,



of his abilities whenever he                    and have a strong sense of his



he does something well.                         capabilities.







Play:



·        Encourage more sophisticated              * Engage more in problem solving,



pretend play by providing props              making decisions and conversations



(e.g., grocery store)



·        Provide many opportunities for            * Strengthen social skills while



social interactions with other                   playing with friends



preschoolers







Teach:



·        Encourage your child not to give          * Learn to persist at a task, especially



up on games or tasks when he                 when others are counting on him



plays with others.



·        Create the opportunity for your             * Feel a sense of leadership



child to play with younger



children







 



Reference:  The First Five Years, a publication from the parenting and child development experts at Invest in Kids.












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